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A STUDY OF RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS, AND ITS MATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES

Rashmi Agrawal Anita Singh

Abstract


The present study is to identify the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and to find out maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in a group of hospital population with singleton, live birth and Cephalic presentation of deliveries. A hospital based case control study was designed to collect data for this research. A comparative study between pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and without gestational diabetes mellitus was done. The sample size of 121 pregnant women was calculated among which 62 were with gestational diabetes mellitus and 59 were without diabetes mellitus( ratio of 1:1 ) . Excluded the women with known history of diabetes. Data was collected using questionnaire and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square. More than fifty percent (59%) of women with gestational diabetes were in the age group of 26 - 30 years. The risk of the disease was more above 26 years of age. About 51% of the women suffering from gestational diabetes were reported to have parity more than four. Nearly fifty percent (48%) of women with gestational diabetes had Grade II obesity. About 66% of women with GDM gained weight between 13-15 kgs during pregnancy. The results of statistical analysis showed that there is no significant association between positive family history for diabetes, pre-term delivery, hypertension, shoulder dystocia, with the occurrence of gestational diabetes at . However, the statistical analysis revealed that cesarean delivery is significantly associated with the occurrence of gestational diabetes at 1% level of significance. The incidence of cesarean section was more in women with Gestational diabetes when compared with pregnant women without diabetes. The percentage of women with hypertension were more among the women with gestational diabetes (42%) compared with non gestational diabetic women (34%)The prevalence of shoulder dystocia was twice more in gestational diabetic mothers when compared with non-gestational diabetes. The incidence of macrosomic and large for gestational age infants were more in women with gestational diabetes. The study cautions the pregnant mothers for screening and treating gestational diabetes as soon as possible to minimize the risk of complications to mother and baby.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes, shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, macrosomic


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References


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